Abrupt changes: The achilles' heels of the earth system

Will Steflen*, Meinrat O. Andreae, Bert Bolin, Peter M. Cox, Paul J. Crutzen, Ulrich Cubasch, Hemuznn Held, Nebojia Nakidenovic, Robert J. Scholes, Liana Talaue-Mcmanus, B. L. Turner

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    20 Citations (Scopus)


    Records from the past show that abrupt global change is the norm, not the exception, in the Earth System. Many recent changes-such as the globalization of the world's economy and the formation of the ozone hole over Antarctica-appear rapid even from the perspective of a single lifetime. What do we now know about the nature of abrupt changes in the Earth System and the probability that human actions could trigger them? & 2004 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)8-20
    Number of pages13
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2004


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