Animal Signalling

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEntry for encyclopedia/dictionarypeer-review


    The concept of retaliation has historically been defined from both a behavioral and functional aspect. At its core, retaliation is based upon the premise of inciting organisms to increase benefit while reducing cost to oneself (McCullough et al. 2013). If a target organism can emit the potential ideal for retaliation toward an aggressor organism (typically in the form of retaliation itself), the target organism may increase its chances of lifetime productivity and may continue to evolve due to this willingness to retaliate. In other words, by making the potential costs of harm too high for an aggressor (imminent retaliation), the target organism is more likely to survive by avoiding harm against oneself.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science
    EditorsTodd K Shackelford & Viviana A Weekes-Shackelford
    Place of PublicationSwitzerland
    PublisherSpringer International Publishing Switzerland
    Pages297 - 301
    ISBN (Print)9783319169996
    Publication statusPublished - 2020

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