Climate variability and salmonellosis in Singapore – A time series analysis

Joel Aik*, Anita E. Heywood, Anthony T. Newall, Lee Ching Ng, Martyn D. Kirk, Robin Turner

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    25 Citations (Scopus)


    Climate change is expected to bring about global warming and an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. This may consequently influence the transmission of food-borne diseases. The short term associations between climatic conditions and Salmonella infections are well documented in temperate climates but not in the tropics. We conducted an ecological time series analysis to estimate the short term associations between non-outbreak, non-travel associated reports of Salmonella infections and observed climatic conditions from 2005 to 2015 for Singapore. We used a negative binomial time series regression model to analyse the associations on a weekly scale, controlling for season, long term trend, delayed weather effects, autocorrelation and the period where Salmonella was made legally notifiable. There were a total of 11,324 Salmonella infections reported during our study period. A 1 °C increase in mean ambient air temperature was associated with a 4.3% increase (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]: 1.043, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.003, 1.084) in reported Salmonella infections in the same week and a 6.3% increase (IRR: 1.063, 95% CI = 1.022, 1.105) three weeks later. A 1% increase in the mean relative humidity was associated with a 1.3% decrease (IRR: 0.987, 95% CI = 0.981, 0.994) in cases six weeks later, while a 10 mm increase in weekly cumulative rainfall was associated with a 0.8% increase (IRR: 1.008, 95% CI = 1.002, 1.015) in cases 2 weeks later but a 0.9% decrease (IRR: 0.991, 95% CI = 0.984, 0.998) in cases 5 weeks later. No thresholds for these weather effects were detected. This study confirms the short-term influence of climatic conditions on Salmonella infections in Singapore and the potential impact of climate change on Salmonellosis in the tropics.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1261-1267
    Number of pages7
    JournalScience of the Total Environment
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2018


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