Demographic Techniques: Data Adjustment and Correction

Heather Booth*, Patrick Gerland

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

    4 Citations (Scopus)


    Demographic data suffer from sampling errors and from biases arising from coverage and content errors that may be systematic and noncompensating. Common and problematic errors for demographic estimation are those affecting the reporting of age, parity, and deaths. Age misreporting affects population counts and vital rates. Techniques of data evaluation and correction relying on individual-level analysis include the postenumeration survey, imputation, capture-recapture methods, and statistical analysis. Techniques using aggregate-level data employ digit preference indices, sex and age ratios, and smoothing; demographic accounting and internal consistency; and parametric functions, relational models, statistical modeling, and time-based methods.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition
    PublisherElsevier Inc.
    Number of pages12
    ISBN (Electronic)9780080970875
    ISBN (Print)9780080970868
    Publication statusPublished - 26 Mar 2015


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