Detection and analysis of novel and known plant volatile apocarotenoids

Julie Leroux, Thy T. Truong, Barry J. Pogson, Ryan P. McQuinn*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)


    As the climate becomes increasingly unpredictable due to global warming, plants will encounter a greater challenge to adapt to their hostile environment (e.g., drought, heat, pollution). Volatile apocarotenoids (VAs) are an integral part of this necessary adaptation. VAs are involved in diverse plant life processes such as defense against biotic or abiotic stresses and regulate various aspects of plant development. The discovery of new VAs will help enhance abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, optimize biomass and crop yield, improve root development to better search for nutrients and promote symbiotic associations. This chapter describes an optimized method, HeadSpace Solid-Phase MicroExtraction (HS-SPME) coupled to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS), for the sensitive, reproducible, accurate, and high-throughput detection and quantification of novel and known VAs. Further optimization of this method can be performed by (1) adapting optimal growth conditions for your plants, (2) identifying the correct SPME fiber coating chemistry for the VAs of interest, (3) adapting optimal sample HS-SPME extraction temperature and time, and the desorption time in the GC inlet, (4) identifying the correct GC column and applying the optimal GC/MS parameters for good chromatographic baseline separation of the VAs, mass spectral matching and retention index (RI) validation, and (5) performing suitable quantification and statistical analyses. With this optimized and validated analytical technique, we detected and quantified 28 VAs; 20 of these were identified for the first time in Arabidopsis.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationCarotenoids
    Subtitle of host publicationCarotenoid and Apocarotenoid Analysis
    EditorsEleanore T. Wurtzel
    PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
    Number of pages58
    ISBN (Print)9780323999755
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

    Publication series

    NameMethods in Enzymology
    ISSN (Print)0076-6879
    ISSN (Electronic)1557-7988


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