Dynamic changes of the Prf/Pto tomato resistance complex following effector recognition

Arsheed H. Sheikh, Iosif Zacharia, Alonso J. Pardal, Ana Dominguez-Ferreras, Daniela J. Sueldo, Jung Gun Kim, Alexi Balmuth, Jose R. Gutierrez, Brendon F. Conlan, Najeeb Ullah, Olivia M. Nippe, Anil M. Girija, Chih Hang Wu, Guido Sessa, Alexandra M.E. Jones, Murray R. Grant, Miriam L. Gifford, Mary Beth Mudgett, John P. Rathjen, Vardis Ntoukakis*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    9 Citations (Scopus)


    In both plants and animals, nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors play critical roles in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. In plants, NLRs recognise pathogen-derived effector proteins and initiate effector-triggered immunity (ETI). However, the molecular mechanisms that link NLR-mediated effector recognition and downstream signalling are not fully understood. By exploiting the well-characterised tomato Prf/Pto NLR resistance complex, we identified the 14-3-3 proteins TFT1 and TFT3 as interacting partners of both the NLR complex and the protein kinase MAPKKKα. Moreover, we identified the helper NRC proteins (NLR-required for cell death) as integral components of the Prf /Pto NLR recognition complex. Notably our studies revealed that TFTs and NRCs interact with distinct modules of the NLR complex and, following effector recognition, dissociate facilitating downstream signalling. Thus, our data provide a mechanistic link between activation of immune receptors and initiation of downstream signalling cascades.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number2568
    JournalNature Communications
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


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