Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, Update 2021

P. W. Barnes, T. M. Robson, P. J. Neale, C. E. Williamson, R. G. Zepp, S. Madronich, S. R. Wilson, A. L. Andrady, A. M. Heikkilä, G. H. Bernhard, A. F. Bais, R. E. Neale, J. F. Bornman*, M. A.K. Jansen, A. R. Klekociuk, J. Martinez-Abaigar, S. A. Robinson, Q. W. Wang, A. T. Banaszak, D. P. HäderS. Hylander*, K. C. Rose, S. Wängberg, B. Foereid, W. C. Hou, R. Ossola, N. D. Paul, J. E. Ukpebor, M. P.S. Andersen, J. Longstreth, T. Schikowski, K. R. Solomon, B. Sulzberger, L. S. Bruckman, K. K. Pandey, C. C. White, L. Zhu, M. Zhu, P. J. Aucamp, J. B. Liley, R. L. McKenzie, M. Berwick, S. N. Byrne, L. M. Hollestein, R. M. Lucas, C. M. Olsen, L. E. Rhodes, S. Yazar, A. R. Young

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    39 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel of the Montreal Protocol under the United Nations Environment Programme evaluates effects on the environment and human health that arise from changes in the stratospheric ozone layer and concomitant variations in ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth’s surface. The current update is based on scientific advances that have accumulated since our last assessment (Photochem and Photobiol Sci 20(1):1–67, 2021). We also discuss how climate change affects stratospheric ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation, and how stratospheric ozone depletion affects climate change. The resulting interlinking effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and climate change are assessed in terms of air quality, carbon sinks, ecosystems, human health, and natural and synthetic materials. We further highlight potential impacts on the biosphere from extreme climate events that are occurring with increasing frequency as a consequence of climate change. These and other interactive effects are examined with respect to the benefits that the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments are providing to life on Earth by controlling the production of various substances that contribute to both stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)275-301
    Number of pages27
    JournalPhotochemical and Photobiological Sciences
    Volume21
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022

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