High-performance p-type multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si): Its characterization and projected performance in PERC solar cells

Pietro P. Altermatt, Zhen Xiong, Qiu Xiang He, Wei Wei Deng, Feng Ye, Yang Yang, Yifeng Chen, Zhi Qiang Feng, Pierre J. Verlinden*, Anyao Liu, Daniel H. Macdonald, Tabea Luka, Dominik Lausch, Marko Turek, Christian Hagendorf, Hannes Wagner-Mohnsen, Jonas Schön, Wolfram Kwapil, Felix Frühauf, Otwin BreitensteinErin E. Looney, Tonio Buonassisi, David B. Needleman, Christine M. Jackson, Aaron R. Arehart, Steven A. Ringel, Keith R. McIntosh, Malcolm D. Abbott, Ben A. Sudbury, Annika Zuschlag, Clemens Winter, Daniel Skorka, Giso Hahn, Daniel Chung, Bernhard Mitchell, Peter Geelan-Small, Thorsten Trupke

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    20 Citations (Scopus)


    Recent progress in the electronic quality of high-performance (HP) multicrystalline silicon material is reported with measurements and modeling performed at various institutions and research groups. It is shown that recent progress has been made in the fabrication at Trina Solar mainly by improving the high excess carrier lifetimes τ due to a considerable reduction of mid-gap states. However, the high lifetimes in the wafers are still reduced by interstitial iron by a factor of about 10 at maximum power point (mpp) conditions compared to mono-crystalline Cz wafers of equivalent resistivity. The low lifetime areas of the wafers seem to be limited by precipitates, most likely Cu. Through simulations, it appears that dislocations reduce cell efficiency by about 0.25% absolute. The best predictors for PERC cell efficiency from ingot metrology are a combination of mean lifetime and dislocation density because dislocations cannot be improved considerably by gettering during cell processing, while lifetime-limiting impurities are gettered well. In future, the material may limit cell efficiency above about 22.5% if the concentrations of Fe and Cu remain above 1010 and 1013 cm−3, respectively, and if dislocations are not reduced further.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)68-74
    Number of pages7
    JournalSolar Energy
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2018


    Dive into the research topics of 'High-performance p-type multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si): Its characterization and projected performance in PERC solar cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this