Investigation of laser wavelength effect on the ablation of enamel and dentin using femtosecond laser pulses

Ludovic Rapp*, Steve Madden, Julia Brand, Ksenia Maximova, Laurence J. Walsh, Heiko Spallek, Omar Zuaiter, Alaa Habeb, Timothy R. Hirst, Andrei V. Rode

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We investigated the effect of femtosecond (fs) laser ablation of enamel and dentin for different pulse wavelengths: infrared (1030 nm), green (515 nm), and ultra-violet (343 nm) and for different pulse separations to determine the optimal irradiation conditions for the precise removal of dental hard tissues with the absence of structural and compositional damage. The ablation rates and efficiencies were established for all three laser wavelengths for both enamel and dentin at room temperature without using any irrigation or cooling system, and the surfaces were assessed with optical and scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrated that 515 nm fs irradiation provides the highest rate and efficiency for ablation, followed by infrared. Finally, we explored the temperature variations inside the dental pulp during the laser procedures for all three wavelengths and showed that the maximum increase at the optimum conditions for both infrared and green irradiations was 5.5 °C, within the acceptable limit of temperature increase during conventional dental treatments. Ultra-violet irradiation significantly increased the internal temperature of the teeth, well above the acceptable limit, and caused severe damage to tooth structures. Thus, ultra-violet is not a compatible laser wavelength for femtosecond teeth ablation.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number20156
    JournalScientific Reports
    Volume13
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

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