Large-scale structure around A z = 2.1 cluster

Chao Ling Hung, Caitlin M. Casey, Yi Kuan Chiang, Peter L. Capak, Michael J. Cowley, Behnam Darvish, Glenn G. Kacprzak, K. Kovač, Simon J. Lilly, Themiya Nanayakkara, Lee R. Spitler, Kim Vy H. Tran, Tiantian Yuan

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    40 Citations (Scopus)


    The most prodigious starburst galaxies are absent in massive galaxy clusters today, but their connection with largescale environments is less clear at z ≳ 2. We present a search of large-scale structure around a galaxy cluster core at z = 2.095 using a set of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies. We find that both color-selected star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) show significant overdensities around the z = 2.095 cluster. A total of eight DSFGs (including three X-ray luminous active galactic nuclei, AGNs) and 34 SFGs are found within a 10 radius (corresponds to ∼15 cMpc at z ∼ 2.1) from the cluster center and within a redshift range of Δz = 0.02, which leads to galaxy overdensities of δDSFG ∼ 12.3 and δSFG ∼ 2.8. The cluster core and the extended DSFG- and SFG-rich structures together demonstrate an active cluster formation phase, in which the cluster is accreting a significant amount of material from large-scale structure while the more mature core may begin to virialize. Our finding of this DSFG-rich structure, along with a number of other protoclusters with excess DSFGs and AGNs found to date, suggest that the overdensities of these rare sources indeed trace significant mass overdensities. However, it remains puzzling how these intense star formers are triggered concurrently. Although an increased probability of galaxy interactions and/or enhanced gas supply can trigger the excess of DSFGs, our stacking analysis based on 850 μm images and morphological analysis based on rest-frame optical imaging do not show such enhancements of merger fraction and gas content in this structure.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number130
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2016


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