## Abstract

A theoretical framework has been developed for an NBI scenario to model the hard non-linear evolution of global Alfvén eigenmodes (GAEs) where the adiabatic motion of phase-space structures (holes and clumps), associated with frequency chirping, occurs in generalised phase-space of slowing down energetic particles. The radial profile of the GAE is expanded using finite elements which allows update of the mode structure as the mode frequency chirps. Constants of motion are introduced to track the dynamics of energetic particles during frequency chirping by implementing proper action-angle variables and canonical transformations which reduce the dynamics essentially to 1D. Consequently, we specify whether the particles are drifting inward/outward as the frequency deviates from the initial MHD eigenfrequency. Using the principle of least action, we have derived the non-linear equation describing the evolution of the radial profile by varying the total Lagrangian of the system with respect to the weights of the finite elements. For the choice of parameters in this work, it is shown that the peak of the radial profile is shifted and also broadens due to frequency chirping. The time rate of frequency change is also calculated using the energy balance and we show that the adiabatic condition remains valid once it is satisfied. This model clearly illustrates the theoretical treatment to study the long range adiabatic frequency sweeping events observed for Alfvén gap modes in real experiments.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Article number | 056014 |

Journal | Nuclear Fusion |

Volume | 60 |

Issue number | 5 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - May 2020 |