Magma genesis and mantle heterogeneity in the Manus back-Arc Basin, Papua New Guinea

John M. Sinton*, Lori L. Ford, Bruce Chappell, Malcolm T. McCulloch

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    177 Citations (Scopus)


    Geochemical data from back-arc volcanic zones in the Manus Basin are used to define five magma types. Closest to the New Britain arc are medium-K lavas of the island arc. association and back-arc basin basalts (BABB). Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), BABB and mildly enriched T-MORB (transitional, MORB) occur along the Manus Spreading Center (MSC) and Extensional Transform Zone (ETZ). The MSC also erupted extreme back-arc basin basalts (XBABB), enriched in 1ight rare earth elements, P, and Zr. Compared with normal MORB, Manus MORB are even more depleted in high field strength elements and slightly enriched in fluid-mobile elements, indicating slight, prior enrichment of their source. with subduction-related components. Chemical variations and modeling suggest systematic, coupled relationships between extent of mantle melting, prior depletion of the mantle source, and enrichment in subduction-related components. Closest to the arc, the greatest addition of subduction-related components has occurred in the mantle with the greatest amount of prior depletion, which has melted the most. Variations in K2O/H2O indicate that the subduction-related component is best described as a phlogopite and/or K-amphibole-bearing hyhridized peridotite. Magmas.from the East Manus Rifts are enriched in Na and Zr with radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr, possibly indicating crustal interaction in a zone of incipient rifling. The source for XBABB and lavas from the Witu Islands requires a mantle component similar to carbonatite melt.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)159-195
    Number of pages37
    JournalJournal of Petrology
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2003


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