Prevalence and risk factors associated with lymphatic filariasis in American Samoa after mass drug administration

Shaun P. Coutts*, Jonathan D. King, Molisamoa Pa'au, Saipale Fuimaono, Joseph Roth, Mary Rose King, Patrick J. Lammie, Colleen L. Lau, Patricia M. Graves

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    22 Citations (Scopus)


    Background: In 2000, American Samoa had 16.5% prevalence of lymphatic filariasis (LF) antigenemia. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was conducted using single-dose albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine from 2000 to 2006. This study presents the results of a 2007 population-based PacELF C-survey in all ages and compares the adult filarial antigenemia results of this survey to those of a subsequent 2010 survey in adults with the aim of improving understanding of LF transmission after MDA. Results: The 2007 C-survey used simple random sampling of households from a geolocated list. In 2007, the overall LF antigen prevalence by immunochromatographic card test (ICT) for all ages was 2.29% (95% CI 1.66-3.07). Microfilaremia prevalence was 0.27% (95% CI 0.09-0.62). Increasing age (OR 1.04 per year, 95% CI 1.02-1.05) was significantly associated with ICT positivity on multivariate analysis, while having ever taking MDA was protective (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16-0.96). The 2010 survey used a similar spatial sampling design. The overall adult filarial antigenemia prevalence remained relatively stable between the surveys at 3.32% (95% CI 2.44-4.51) by ICT in 2007 and 3.23 (95% CI 2.21-4.69) by Og4C3 antigen in 2010. However, there were changes in village-level prevalence. Eight village/village groupings had antigen-positive individuals identified in 2007 but not in 2010, while three villages/village groupings that had no antigen-positive individuals identified in 2007 had positive individuals identified in 2010. Conclusions: After 7 years of MDA, with four rounds achieving effective coverage, a representative household survey in 2007 showed a decline in prevalence from 16.5 to 2.3% in all ages. However, lack of further decline in adult prevalence by 2010 and fluctuation at the village level showed that overall antigenemia prevalence at a broader scale may not provide an accurate reflection of ongoing transmission at the village level.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number22
    JournalTropical Medicine and Health
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 4 Aug 2017


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