Prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in Yazd inner-city municipalities

Mohsen Mirzaei, Masoud Mirzaei*, Ali Reza Sarsangi, Nasser Bagheri

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    6 Citations (Scopus)


    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world. With effective intervention and control of cardiovascular risk factors, mortality rates may be reduced. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of modifiable risk factors across five municipalities in Yazd city. Methods: Ten thousand residents of the Yazd greater area aged 20-69 years were selected using cluster random sampling method. Overall, 200 clusters were randomly selected based on the postcodes of residents who lived in the five municipalities of Yazd. Those who lived in Yazd annexed cities and rural areas were excluded. A valid questionnaire was completed and physical examination performed as done (94.9% response rate). Instances of self-reported diabetes mellitus, high blood cholesterol, tobacco smoking, and unhealthy diet were recorded. Blood pressure, height, and weight were measured and physical activity was classified by International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A chi-square test was used to analyze the differences in variables across municipalities. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS V. 16. Results: We analyzed 8749 participants' data from Yazd city. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension were 14.1, 16.7 and 18.6%, respectively. One in every four people consumed the recommended five servings of vegetables per day. Fish consumption was less than 5% at least once a week among participants. An unhealthy diet (85.7%); low physical activity (52.2%), hypertension (36.7%) and obesity (26.3%) were the most common cardiovascular risk factors. Only 2.1% of adults had no risk factors for CVD, and almost 75% of people had more than one risk factor. The prevalence of risk factors (excluding hypertension) was significantly different across the municipalities. Residents of region three had the highest prevalence of all risk factors aside from inactivity and unhealthy diet. Conclusion: Unhealthy dietary habits and inactivity are the most common modifiable risk factors of CVD in Yazd. Spatial variations of cardiovascular risk factors observed. This geographic health inequality requires more attention from policymakers to control CVD risk factors across different municipalities accordingly. Promoting healthy lifestyle is the top priority of health intervention programs. It is recommended to increase access to sport arenas and restrict access to tobacconist in high-risk areas.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number134
    JournalBMC Public Health
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 30 Jan 2020


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