99m Tc-radiolabeled composites enabling in vivo imaging of arterial dispersal and retention of microspheres in the vascular network of rabbit lungs, liver, and liver tumors

Ross W. Stephens, Gregory D. Tredwell*, Karen J. Knox, Lee A. Philip, David W. King, Kelly M. Debono, Jessica L. Bell, Tim J. Senden, Marcel R. Tanudji, Jillean G. Winter, Stephanie A. Bickley, Michael J. Tapner, Stephen K. Jones

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    11 Citations (Scopus)


    Purpose: Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is an effective treatment option for liver tumors, using Y-90-loaded polymer microspheres that are delivered via catheterization of the hepatic artery. Since Y-90 is a beta emitter and not conveniently imaged by standard clinical instrumentation, dosimetry is currently evaluated in each patient using a surrogate particle, 99m Technetium-labeled macroaggregated albumin ( 99m Tc-MAA). We report a new composite consisting of 99m Tc-labeled nanoparticles attached to the same polymer microspheres as used for SIRT, which can be imaged with standard SPECT. Methods: Carbon nanoparticles with an encapsulated core of 99m Tc were coated with the poly-cation protamine sulfate to provide electrostatic attachment to anionic polystyrene sulfonate microspheres of different sizes (30, 12, and 8 µm). The in vivo stability of these composites was determined via intravenous injection and entrapment in the capillary network of normal rabbit lungs for up to 3 hours. Furthermore, we evaluated their biodistribution in normal rabbit livers, and livers implanted with VX2 tumors, following intrahepatic artery instillation. Results: We report distribution tests for three different sizes of radiolabeled microspheres and compare the results with those obtained using 99m Tc-MAA. Lung retention of the radiolabeled microspheres ranged from 72.8% to 92.9%, with the smaller diameter microspheres showing the lowest retention. Liver retention of the microspheres was higher, with retention in normal livers ranging from 99.2% to 99.8%, and in livers with VX2 tumors from 98.2% to 99.2%. The radiolabeled microspheres clearly demonstrated preferential uptake at tumor sites due to the increased arterial perfusion produced by angiogenesis. Conclusion: We describe a novel use of radiolabeled carbon nanoparticles to generate an imageable microsphere that is stable in vivo under the shear stress conditions of arterial networks. Following intra-arterial instillation in the normal rabbit liver, they distribute in a distinct segmented pattern, with the smaller microspheres extending throughout the organ in finer detail, while still being well retained within the liver. Furthermore, in livers hosting an implanted VX2 tumor, they reveal the increased arterial perfusion of tumor tissue resulting from angiogenesis. These novel composites may have potential as a more representative mimic of the vascular distribution of therapeutic microspheres in patients undergoing SIRT.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)889-900
    Number of pages12
    JournalInternational Journal of Nanomedicine
    Publication statusPublished - 2019


    Dive into the research topics of '99m Tc-radiolabeled composites enabling in vivo imaging of arterial dispersal and retention of microspheres in the vascular network of rabbit lungs, liver, and liver tumors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this