Synthesis, structure and reactivity of terphenyl-substituted germylium-ylidene cations

Robert J. Mangan, Alexander R. Davies, Jamie Hicks, Christian P. Sindlinger, Amber L. Thompson, Simon Aldridge*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The first examples of isolable two-coordinate terphenyl-substituted germylium-ylidenes are reported. These systems, of composition [(NHC)(Ar)Ge]+, exploit a range of aryl and NHC substituents (ArMes, ArTrip; IMe4, IPrMe) and are isolated by employing weakly coordinating borate or aluminate counter-ions. The use of the smallest combination of substituents used in this study (IMe4 and ArMes) results in the formation of a dicationic dimer, [(IMe4)(ArMes)Ge=Ge(ArMes)(IMe4)]2+, which can also be viewed as an imidazolium-functionalized digermene. Increasing the steric loading (at either the NHC or terphenyl ligand) leads to the formation of the monomeric germylium-ylidene cations [(IMe4)(ArTrip)Ge]+, [(IPrMe)(ArMes)Ge]+, and [(IPrMe)(ArTrip)Ge]+, stabilized in the solid state to varying degrees by secondary interactions with the peripheral arene π systems or C–H bonds. These three systems are characterized by widening C–Ge–C angles (101.7(1), 105.0(2) and 107.2(1)°, respectively) as the steric profiles of the germanium-bound substituents increase. In the case of dication [(IMe4)(ArMes)Ge=Ge(ArMes)(IMe4)]2+, its ability to act as a functional source of the corresponding monomeric germylium-ylidene, [(IMe4)(ArMes)Ge]+, is demonstrated through its reaction with PhSiH3 in bromobenzene solution, which generates the monomeric GeIV species [(IMe4)(ArMes)Ge(H)(SiH2Ph)]+ via Si–H oxidative addition at germanium.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115006
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Synthesis, structure and reactivity of terphenyl-substituted germylium-ylidene cations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this