T-cell subsets in the germinal center

Roybel R. Ramiscal*, Carola G. Vinuesa

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    144 Citations (Scopus)


    T cells are known to migrate to B-cell-enriched follicles and germinal centers within secondary lymphoid organs to provide help to B cells. Cognate T:B interactions that take place at the T:B border and subsequently within germinal centers are essential for B-cell priming, differentiation into germinal center B cells, and selection of mutated cells into memory B cells or memory plasma cells. In recent years, different stages of maturation within B-cell helper T cells, collectively known as B-follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, as well as heterogeneity amid germinal center T cells are becoming clear. Indeed, germinal centers support not only bona fide Tfh cells but also CD4+ and CD8+ follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells that act to suppress germinal center responses and B-cell helper natural killer T cells. There is a growing need for more precise phenotypic and functional distinction of these specialized T-cell subsets. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the ontogeny, molecular identity, and functional relevance of the various subsets of germinal center T cells.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)146-155
    Number of pages10
    JournalImmunological Reviews
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013


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