The velocity statistics of turbulent clouds in the presence of gravity, magnetic fields, radiation, and outflow feedback

Yue Hu*, Christoph Federrath*, Siyao Xu*, Sajay Sunny Mathew

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    12 Citations (Scopus)


    The interaction of turbulence, magnetic fields, self-gravity, and stellar feedback within molecular clouds is crucial for understanding star formation. We study the effects of self-gravity and outflow feedback on the properties of the turbulent velocity via the SF over length-scales from ∼0.01 to 2 pc. We analyse a series of three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of star cluster formation. We find outflow feedback can change the scaling of velocity fluctuations but still roughly being in between Kolmogorov and Burgers turbulence. We observe that self-gravity and protostellar outflows increase the velocity fluctuations over all length-scales. Outflows can amplify the velocity fluctuations by up to a factor of ∼7 on scales ∼0.01-0.2 pc and drive turbulence up to a scale of ∼1 pc. The amplified velocity fluctuations provide more support against gravity and enhance fragmentation on small scales. The self-gravity's effect is more significant on smaller dense clumps and it increases the fraction of the compressive velocity component up to a scale of ∼0.2 pc. However, outflow feedback drives both solenoidal and compressive modes, but it induces a higher fraction of solenoidal modes relative to compressive modes. Thus, with outflows, the dense core ends up with a slightly higher fraction of solenoidal modes. We find that the compressible fraction is fairly constant with about 1/3 on scales ∼0.1-0.2 pc. The combined effect of enhanced velocity dispersion and reduced compressive fraction contributes to a reduction in the star formation rate.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2100-2110
    Number of pages11
    JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022


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