Toll/IL-1 signaling is critical for house dust mite-specific Th1 and Th2 responses

Simon Phipps*, En Lam Chuan, Gerard E. Kaiko, Yun Foo Shen, Adam Collison, Joerg Mattes, Jessica Barry, Sophia Davidson, Kevin Oreo, Lauren Smith, Ashley Mansell, Klaus I. Matthaei, Paul S. Foster

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    140 Citations (Scopus)


    Rationale: One of the immunopathological features of allergic inflammation is the infiltration of helper T type 2 (Th2) cells to the site of disease. Activation of innate pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) plays a critical role in helper T type 1 cell differentiation, yet their contribution to the generation of Th2 responses to clinically relevant aeroallergens remains poorly defined. Objectives: To determine the requirement for TLR2, TLR4, and the Toll/IL-1 receptor domain adaptor protein MyD88 in a murine model of allergic asthma. Methods: Wild-type and factor-deficient ( -/-) mice were sensitized intranasally to the common allergen house dust mite (HDM) and challenged 2 weeks later on four consecutive days. Measurements of allergic airway inflammation, T-cell cytokine production, and airway hyperreactivity were performed 24 hours later. Measurements and Main Results: Mice deficient in MyD88 were protected from the cardinal features of allergic asthma, including granulocytic inflammation, Th2 cytokine production and airway hyperreactivity. Although HDM activated NF-κB in TLR2- or TLR4-expressing HEK cells, only in TLR4-/- mice was the magnitude of allergic airway inflammation and hyperreactivity attenuated. The diminished Th2 response present in MyD88-/- and TLR4-/- mice was associated with fewer OX40 ligand-expressing myeloid dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes during allergic sensitization. Finally, HDM-specific IL-17 production and airway neutrophilia were attenuated in MyD88-/- but not TLR4-/- mice. Conclusions: Together, these data suggest that Th2- and Th17-mediated inflammation generated on inhalational HDM exposure is differentially regulated by the presence of microbial products and the activation of distinct MyD88-dependent pattern recognition receptors.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)883-893
    Number of pages11
    JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
    Issue number10
    Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2009


    Dive into the research topics of 'Toll/IL-1 signaling is critical for house dust mite-specific Th1 and Th2 responses'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this