Unification and classification of two-dimensional crystalline patterns using orbifolds

S. T. Hyde*, S. J. Ramsden, V. Robins

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    17 Citations (Scopus)


    The concept of an orbifold is particularly suited to classification and enumeration of crystalline groups in the euclidean (flat) plane and its elliptic and hyperbolic counterparts. Using Conway's orbifold naming scheme, this article explicates conventional point, frieze and plane groups, and describes the advantages of the orbifold approach, which relies on simple rules for calculating the orbifold topology. The article proposes a simple taxonomy of orbifolds into seven classes, distinguished by their underlying topological connectedness, boundedness and orientability. Simpler 'crystallographic hyperbolic groups' are listed, namely groups that result from hyperbolic sponge-like sections through three-dimensional euclidean space related to all known genus-three triply periodic minimal surfaces (i.e. the P, D, Gyroid, CLP and H surfaces) as well as the genus-four I-WP surface.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)319-337
    Number of pages19
    JournalActa Crystallographica Section A: Foundations and Advances
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2014


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